First generation antihistamines

Know the True Costs Before Treating Your Dog's Itch with Steroids or Antihistamines. Choose a Proven, Effective Itch Treatment that Starts Working in 4 Hour Antihistamines, 1st Generation. Alka-Seltzer Plus Allergy. Benadryl. Benadryl Allergy Dye-Free LiquiGels. brompheniramine. carbinoxamine. Children's Benadryl Allergy. Children's Triaminic Thin.. First generation antihistamines include the following drugs. Chlorpheniramine Cyclizine; Diphenhydramine; Dimenhydrinate; Doxylamine; Hydroxyzine; Meclizine; Promethazine; Doxepine; Histamin First-generation antihistamines were developed more than seventy years ago and are still in widespread use today. They act on histamine receptors in the brain and spinal cord and in the rest of the body (called the periphery). They also act on muscarinic, alpha-adrenergic, and serotonin receptors. This means that first-generation antihistamines are more likely to cause side effects such as sedation, dry mouth

Does Your Dog Itch Often? - Allergic Itch Could Cause Thi

Lieberman P. Histamine, antihistamines, and the central nervous system. Allergy Asthma Proc, 2009, 30(5), 482-6 Pubmed O'Donoghue M., Tharp M.D. Antihistamines and their role as antipruritics First-generation antihistamines include diphenhydramine (Benadryl), carbinoxamine (Clistin), clemastine (Tavist), chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), and brompheniramine (Dimetane) The first generation antihistamines are typically short acting and sedating (due to their ability to enter your brain and cause drowsiness) while the second generation antihistamines tend to be longer lasting but perhaps not quite as effective in cases of a severe allergic reaction like a bee sting

Just like the name implies, the first generation antihistamine were the first type approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). They began to be approved in the United States in the 1930s and are still prescribed today. They work on histamine receptor in the brain and spinal cord along with other types of receptors This is particularly true of first-generation antihistamines like diphenhydramine . Often found in allergy medicines like Benadryl, diphenhydramine is known for its ability to produce drowsiness. Many allergy medicines have moved away from first-gen antihistamines for just this reason. At the same time, though, Benadryl remains popular in part because of its ability to help allergy sufferers get to sleep The question still unanswered with respect to allergic rhinitis is whether patients can function better using a first-generation antihistamine (eg, chlorpheniramine maleate, dexchlorpheniramine maleate, brompheniramine maleate, diphenhydramine, tripelennamine, triprolidine hydrochloride, etc) or a second-generation nonsedating antihistamine (loratadine, cetirizine hydrochloride, fexofenadine hydrochloride, terfenadine, astemizole, etc). Whether nonpatient volunteers taking diphenhydramine in. H1 antihistamines First-generation antihistamines: Diphenhydramine; Meclizine; Doxylamine; Promethazine; Clemastine; Dimenhydrinate; Chlorpheniramine; Dimetindene; Brompheniramine; Hydroxyzine; Cyproheptadine; Antiallergic agent. Allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis; Contact dermatitis; Hay fever, urticaria, angioedema, and rhinorrhea; Antiemetic agent; Sedative agen Oral H1-antihistamines (AHs) are the most commonly used therapy to treat allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. Older, first-generation AHs (e.g. diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine) have significant and common side effects including sedation, impairment with decreased cognitive function, poor sleep quality, dry mouth, dizziness, and orthostatic hypotension

Summary First generation antihistamines are a class of drugs that include Chlorpheniramine and Diphenhydramine. These drugs work by blocking histamine receptors, muscarinic receptors, and alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. Blocking H1 histamine receptors can reduce histamine-mediated vasodilation and vascular permeability, helping to treat allergy symptoms Sleepyness: The first generation antihistamines (benadryl, chlor-trimeton, tavist) are short acting and usually make people sleepy. Second generation (claritin, zyrtec, allegra, xyzal, (levocetirizine) clarinex) are long acting once a day, and generally do not make people sleepy, or less so. 5.5k views Answered >2 years ag Antihistamines, the first line treatment for conditions such as allergic rhinitis and urticaria, are amongst the most commonly used medications in the world with more than 40 histamine-1 antagonist agents available. The 18th Expert Committee on the Selection and Use of Essential Medicines requested an evaluation for the use of chlorphenamine (the systemic first generation histamine-1-receptor.

Antihistamines, 1st Generation Drug, OTCs & Herbals

  1. es may be contraindicated if you have glaucoma, thyroid disease, heart disease and a number of other conditions. If you have liver or kidney disorders, consult your doctor before taking second-generation antihista
  2. es commonly cause drowsiness because they interrupt the circadian rhythms that control your normal feelings of sleepiness. In the 1980s, the second generation of antihista
  3. es, which include drugs like diphenhydra

Mechanism Of Action Of First Generation (Sedating

  1. es, on the other hand, are less sedating and have fewer side effects than first-generation agents. Recently second-generation agents have been compared for their pharmacologic activities using an epicutaneous hista
  2. es are used less often to treat allergies because they cause significant sedation. First generation antihista
  3. e diphenhydra
  4. es These were among the first antihista

Antihistamines are a diverse group of drugs broadly divided clinically into two groups based on their sedative potential. 127 First-generation agents include doxepin (discussed earlier under antide­pressants), diphenhydramine, doxylamine, chlorpheniramine, hydroxyzine, meclizine, promethazine, and cyproheptadine. Essentially all of the over-the-counter antihistamine drugs marketed for. Check Out Antihistamines On eBay. Fill Your Cart With Color Today The authors indicate that these first-generation antihistamines are also used for urticaria, which often requires daytime use of the drugs. It is interesting that a generic drug such as diphenhydramine remains the first choice of most physicians for acute urticarial reactions, despite the heavy advertising for the second-generation antihistamines. Could it be that the first-generation drugs.

First-generation antihistamines are non-specific - they bind to other receptors and they cross the blood brain barrier. As a result, they have a variety of unintended side effects like dry mouth, dry eyes and constipation all the way to more serious things like dizziness, low blood pressure and being overly sedated or confused. Because of this, it's recommended not to operate heavy. First-generation antihistamines. The older, first-generation H1 antagonists (eg, diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine) are effective in reducing most symptoms of allergic rhinitis, but they produce a. First-generation antihistamines block peripheral H 1 receptors, but also cross the blood - brain barrier and block central nervous system H 1 and cholinergic receptors as well. This produces the unwanted side effect of sedation. Nonselective topical antihistamines include pheniramine, antazoline, chlorpheniramine, and cyclizine. Second-generation antihistamines do not cross the blood.

Which antihistamine for my child? | Parent24

first generation antihistamines. The original, first generation antihistamines have drawbacks that include being short-acting, making it difficult to concentrate, and drowsiness. The major side effect of this allergy medication is drowsiness. Most of us think of histamine negatively, since we associate it with allergic reactions. However, histamine is actually a neurotransmitter which helps. The first-generation antihistamines have never been adequately studied for pediatric age groups, though they are still widely used in application to such patients. In contrast, studies in children.

First-generation antihistamines. Class Summary. These agents antagonize H1 receptors and block release of histamine. They provide symptomatic relief of pruritus and help improve eruptions. Hydroxyzine HCl (Anxanil, Atarax, Atozine, Durrax, Vistaril) View full drug information; Hydroxyzine antagonizes H1 receptors in the periphery. It may suppress histamine activity in the subcortical CNS. First generation of antihistamines have a considerable amount of anticholinergic side effects. These side effects of first-generation antihistamines included sleepiness, urinary retention, dry mouth and constipation.Because of these side effects, first-generation antihistamines are not recommended for a daily, routine use because of their sedative properties the first-generation antihistamines. As a result, they are far less likely to cross the blood-brain barrier and, for that reason, cause little if any sedation. In a recent comparative trial, sub-jects who were treated with the first-generation agent diphen-hydramine were found to have significant performance deficits on tests of divided attention, working memory, vigilance, and speed. By. Classes of first generation H1 receptorantagonist antihistamines• Ethylenediamines• Ethanolamines• Alkylamines• Piperazines• Tricyclics 15. Common Structural Features of classicalfirst generation antihistamines• 2 aromatic rings ESSENTIAL,connected to a centralcarbon, nitrogen, or oxygenamine gp ESSENTAIL• Spacer between central atomand the amine, usually 2-3carbons in length

List of Common Antihistamines + Uses & Side Effects

  1. es and most second-generation H(1)-antihista
  2. es. Generally the compounds are orally active and well absorbed, but oral bioavailability may be limited by first pass metabolism. The metabolites formed depend on drug structure to a large extent, but commonly involve the tertiary a
  3. es are lipophilic, facilitating crossing of the blood-brain barrier into the central nervous system.48Studies looking at the binding to H(1)-receptors in the brain in adults have shown between 50% and 90% occupancy by first-generation H(1)-antihista
  4. e if you have any of the following health problems: Glaucoma. Trouble urinating (from an enlarged prostate gland ). Breathing problems, such as asthma, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis. Thyroid disease. Heart disease. High blood.
  5. es. Drowsiness is a common side effect of older, first-generation antihista
  6. es, like Benadryl, are effective against seasonal allergies but can make you very sleepy. Newer generation antihista

First-generation antihistamines are often referred to as sedating antihistamines. In addition to a perceived sedative effect, first-generation antihistamine use has also been linked with. The first-generation antihistamines, which are the oldest ones still in use, didn't have any nuance in which histamine receptors they blocked. This caused some problems since histamines are also essential to regulating an individual's sleep-wake cycle. By crossing the blood-brain barrier and disrupting the sleep cycle, these antihistamines make individuals sleepy. Newer antihistamines have.

H1-antihistamines in the elderly - PubMe

Antihistamines are medicines often used to relieve symptoms of allergies, such as hay fever, hives, conjunctivitis and reactions to insect bites or stings. They're also sometimes used to prevent motion sickness and as a short-term treatment for insomnia. Most antihistamines can be bought from pharmacies and shops, but some are only available on prescription Some specific anticholinergic drugs are: Older antidepressants like doxepin (brand name Sinequan) Antimuscarinics for bladder control like oxybutynin (Ditropan) First generation antihistamines like diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton). Drugs with.. Antihistamine and decongestant combinations are used to treat the nasal congestion (stuffy nose), sneezing, and runny nose caused by colds and hay fever. Antihistamines work by preventing the effects of a substance called histamine, which is produced by the body. Histamine can cause itching, sneezing, runny nose, and watery eyes Not all antihistamines are the same, however. The paper from McMaster University noted that first-generation antihistamines are the ones to worry about, while newer antihistamines are generally.

Antihistamine - Wikipedi

  1. es are a major concern, the tricyclic antidepressants actually made up most of the anticholinergic use in this study, which only complicated this issue of limiting long-term use. While these medications have served many people, we should be considering them for what they are. They are medicines - you get on them, get better, and then get off them. The.
  2. es. First generation antihista
  3. es now have little role in therapeutics. Their unfavourable adverse effect profile has prompted the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network to recommend making these antihista

These classifications indicate how likely you are to experience drowsiness while taking the medication, with first generation antihistamines being the most likely to cause drowsiness while third generation antihistamines have the lowest chance for drowsiness. If you are looking for an antihistamine with a lower risk of drowsiness, it may be best to start with Xyzal. In some cases, like in. The first-generation antihistamines can make you drowsy because they cross the blood-brain barrier, an intricate system of cells that regulates what substances pass into the brain. In fact, these older antihistamines are often marketed as sleep aids. The first-generation antihistamines are also used in cold-and-flu formulations to provide a side benefit of drowsiness when you're feeling ill.

Pharmacology of Antihistamine

Antihistamines. Antihistamines are used to treat a variety of allergic reactions. Histamine is an important chemical released during allergic reactions, and these medications work against this chemical. They are effective, for example, in the treatment of skin allergies and hay fever. Newer generation antihistamines offer allergy relief while causing minimal sleepiness 1. These medications. Avoid first-generation antihistamines - If you plan to take an oral medication to treat your hay fever, think twice before using first generation antihistamines such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and chlorpheniramine (ChlorTrimeton). They can cause drowsiness and symptoms like dry mouth, dry eyes, and constipation. Look for non-sedating treatments such as cetirizine, levocetirizine. First-generation antihistamines, most commonly promethazine or diphenhydramine, are also used as a treatment for travel sickness and sleep loss, thanks to the sedative effects that the drug provides. This means that any form of medication with the active ingredient as promethazine or hydroxyzine can be used for multiple conditions. Chlorphenamine has a weaker sedative effect than other first.

Importantly, second generation antihistamines do not have as many side effects as first generation antihistamines, since they are more selective for H1 receptors and cannot pass through the blood brain barrier to work at central histamine receptors. As such, they do not cause sedation and also do not have the anticholinergic or alpha-blocking effects characteristic of the first-generation. First Generation Oral Antihistamines. The most common medications in this group are diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine. These oldies (but sometimes goodies) have a plethora of effects, some of which are desired and some of which aren't. Of course, as antihistamines, they bind tightly to the H1 receptor for therapeutic effect. But that tight binding in central H1 receptors is also in part. H 1-antihistamines, the mainstay of treatment for urticaria, were developed from anticholinergic drugs more than 70 years ago. They act as inverse agonists rather than antagonists of histamine H 1-receptors which are members of the G-protein family.The older first generation H 1-antihistamines penetrate readily into the brain to cause sedation, drowsiness, fatigue and impaired concentration.

First-generation antihistamines, such as cyclizine and promethazine, are an older type of treatment; whereas second- and third-generation antihistamines, such as cetirizine and desloratadine, are newer forms. The main difference is that second- and third-generation treatments are not as likely to cause drowsiness as a side effect as first-generation treatments; newer treatments are more. Sedation: (First-generation H1 antihistamines) Diphenhydramine may cause paradoxical hyperactivity in young children Fatigue, dizziness, lack of coordination, and tremors First-generation antihistamines exert anticholinergic effects, Dryness, blurred vision and retention of urine The most common adverse reaction associated with second-generation antihistamines is headache Topical. The first-generation H1-antihistamines have a much greater sedative effect than the second-generation H1-antihistamines. Researchers could not offer a satisfactory explanations until late 1990s. These are the older or 'first generation' antihistamines. They can make you feel sleepy, because the medicines move easily from your blood to your brain. This can slow down your thinking and movement and affect your concentration. If you get these effects, do not drive, cycle or operate machinery. Your doctor may suggest that you take a sedating antihistamine if itching from an allergy is. criugm.qc.c

Antihistamines: How they work, types, and side effect

  1. es Market By Antihista
  2. es come in different forms, including tablets, nasal sprays, eye drops and syrups. There are many brands available on prescription from your GP or over the counter at your local pharmacy. Different antihista
  3. es grouped as first-generation antihista
  4. es such as Benadryl and Chlor-Trimeton. In addition, even non-drowsy antihista
  5. es such as cetirizine are thought to be generally well tolerated with
  6. es in European countries principally for the treatment of allergies. Their main therapeutic effects are mediated by their activity on H 1 receptors in immunoregulating cells, CNS, and smooth muscle. []Their pharmacological profile can be grouped into either first-generation antihista

These first-generation antihistamines have poor receptor selectivity and thus cause significant unwanted side effects. Histamine released from the mast cells during the inflammatory process including type I hypersensitivity allergic reactions is antagonized by antihistamines. Although, antihistamines do not antagonize histamine binding on all types of histamine receptors. Antihistamines are H1. 1. First-generation antihistamines are associated with substantial and sometimes fatal side effects. Antihistamines with diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine or hydroxyzine can cause drowsiness and affect cognitive function, including school performance. Overdosing on first-generation antihistamines can be fatal. 2. Newer antihistamines are safer. First generation antihistamines also tend to be lipophilic enough to be able to cross the BBB, allowing for the interaction with central H1 receptors and ultimately leading to sedation. As mentioned earlier, both cetirizine and fexofenadine have long, flexible aliphatic chains terminating with a carboxylic acidat the amino group that interacts with Asp107

OTC Antihistamines: Different Types, Benefits, and

First-generation antihistamines have strong sedative action and would likely give you an unpleasant dry mouth after consumption. They are mostly used for allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis, contact dermatitis, hay fever and even motion sickness. If your nasal congestion is keeping you awake, first-generation antihistamines may be a godsend for you. However, ensure that you do not take these. Newer Antihistamines Are Safer, As Affordable And As Efficacious As First-Generation Antihistamines. Compared with first-generation antihistamines, systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials have found newer antihistamines to be safer (e.g., 4% sedation v. 28%), 2-4 longer lasting (12-24 h v. 4-6 h dosing) and faster acting (50 v. 80 min). 1 The World Health Organization replaced. First-generation antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine). In these patients, the overall clinical picture tends to be dominated by the anticholinergic toxidrome. Tricyclic antidepressants. In this case, the more life-threatening aspects of the intoxication tend to be dominated by effects on sodium channels Over-the-counter antihistamines are available in the form of first generation and second generation antihistamines.()First generation OTC anti-histamines for allergies (active ingredients and. The first-generation antihistamines include brompheni-ramine, chlorpheniramine, clemastine, and diphenhydr-amine (Benadryl). They may cause substantial adverse effects, including sedation, fatigue.

First-generation antihistamines such as loratadine (Claritin) are prescribed for seasonal allergies because they are: 1. More effective than first-generation antihistamines 2. Less sedating than the first-generation antihistamines 3. Prescription products, therefore are covered by insurance 4. Able to be taken with central nervous system (CNS. Antihistamines are classified into two groups - the first-generation (sedating) and second-generation (non-sedating). Sedating antihistamines cause sedation as they are highly lipid soluble and readily cross the blood brain barrier. This sedating activity is sometimes used in managing conditions such as eczema where sleep maybe disturbed due to pruritus. Sedating antihistamines. There is insufficient support for first generation antihistamines (both H 1 and H 2) as preventive migraine medications and sedation and weight gain are unacceptable side effects. Non-sedating H 1 antihistamines need to be appropriately tested. Central H 3 receptors seem to have a role in migraine that merit further investigation. The histaminergic system may be a goal for novel migraine drugs.

Assessment of antihistamines in the treatment of skin

First‐generation antihistamines are considered driving‐impairing medicines (DIM), while second‐ and third‐generation antihistamines are relatively safe for driving. Objectives. The aim of this study is to know the trend of consumption of antihistamines and other DIMs in Spain between 2015 and 2019. Methods . This is a population‐based registry study. The population distribution by. Additionally, hydroxyzine is a first generation antihistamine with considerably more side-effects than cetirizine. We conclude that many patients indeed had a favorable response to higher doses of antihistamines when doses up to fourfold were insufficient. The effect of antihistamines, but only up to fourfold, has been studied previously, but very few head-to-head studies have been performed. First-generation antihistamines (e.g., Benadryl, Ala-Hist IR) are considered anticholinergic drugs since they block activity of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter that transmits messages within the brain and throughout the central nervous system. Anticholinergics can worsen certain conditions or lead to serious complications. Talk with your doctor before taking one of these drugs if you have. Benadryl and other first-generation antihistamines should be used with caution in children and preferably under the direction of a physician. Benadryl should never be given to a child for the purpose of making them sleepy. Children may experience similar side effects as adults, or potentially experience unexpected side effects such as excitement, irritability, and insomnia.   The. First-generation H1-antihistamines potentially cause adverse effects in multiple body systems. CNS adverse effects of antihistamines are due to inverse agonism at CNS H1-receptors, inhibition of neurotransmission in histaminergic neurons, and impairment of alertness, cognition, learning, and memory that is not necessarily associated with sedation, fatigue, or somnolence

Antihistamines. Antihistamines are a mainstay in treatment of allergic rhinitis. The first-generation or older antihistamines (e.g., chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine) are effective in reducing sneezing, itching, and rhinorrhea. They have untoward side effects, however, that are particularly notable in the elderly patient Drowsiness (frequency not known) — cetirizine and loratadine cause less sedation and psychomotor impairment than first-generation antihistamines, because they penetrate the blood brain barrier to a lesser extent. Advise people taking non-sedating antihistamines that some people may experience sedation, which may affect their ability to drive, and that the sedative effects are enhanced when. First-generation or sedating antihistamines can cause significant drowsiness and are generally more associated with the antimuscarinic side-effects mentioned above. These include alimemazine, chlorphenamine, clemastine, cyproheptadine, hydroxyzine, ketotifen and promethazine. These medicines may be used for their sedative effects should your sleep be disturbed by itching. Non-sedating or.


Video: PharmaWiki - Antihistaminik

Limiting both substances by first-generation antihistamines like Benadryl may be helpful for some people with motion sickness. The second-generation antihistamines like citerizine (Zyrtec), loratadine (Claritin) and fexofenadine (Allegra) are not anticholinergic medications and do not cross the blood-brain barrier. They have not been shown to be effective for motion sickness. Dr. Timothy Hain. First-generation antihistamines are associated with substantial and sometimes fatal side effects. Antihistamines with diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine or hydroxyzine are first-generation. The use of first-generation antihistamines in elderly patients is potentially inappropriate (STOPP criteria) as safer, less toxic antihistamines are widely available. For further information, see STOPP/START criteria in Prescribing in the elderly. Allergen immunotherapy. Immunotherapy using allergen vaccines containing house dust mite, animal dander (cat or dog), or extracts of grass and tree.

Antihistamines Drugs uses & Dosage Cheat Sheet - Medical

H1 antagonist - Wikipedi

While first generation antihistamines like Benadryl are more prone to make you sleepy, even second-generation medications like Zyrtec, when broken down by the body, result in byproducts that have. The first generation antihistamines (e.g. Benadryl) are considered just as fast acting as Allegra and Zyrtec. No matter how fast acting the antihistamines are, in order to get the best relief from allergies, it is important to take the medication before your allergy symptoms start. Antihistamines block the receptors that histamine (which causes the allergy symptoms) bind to. It is best to have. First generation antihistamines may be contraindicated if you have glaucoma, thyroid disease, heart disease and a number of other conditions. If you have liver or kidney disorders, consult your doctor before taking second-generation antihistamines. Antihistamines are commonly taken to combat the effects of inflammation due to allergic responses. First generation antihistamines may be. First-generation antihistamines, though very effective, may be hazardous. Studies have shown that diphenhydramine interferes with the ability to respond adequately when driving a car. This occurs even though the driver does not notice that it made him or her sleepy. In some states, operating a motor vehicle after taking a first-generation antihistamine is considered driving under the influence. The first generation antihistamines are the older group of antihistamines and are often used as 'sleeping aids' because of its strong sedative actions. Although the sedative effect of antihistamines are sometimes desired, like in a patient with allergic rhinitis who is having difficulty sleeping, generally the use of these drugs should be limited in a person who is driving or operating.

Complete Guide To Antihistamines - Walru

First-generation H-1 antihistamines more easily cross the blood-brain barrier into the central nervous system (CNS), whereas second-generation H-1 antihistamines do not. The first-generation drugs will bind to both central and peripheral histamine-1 receptors, whereas second-generation drugs selectively bind to peripheral histamine-1 receptors; this leads to different therapeutic and side. This caused that these drugs were withdrawn from the market. 4,6,11,12 Older first generation H1A are widely sold in most countries as over the counter or prescribed medications and are frequently implicated in accidental or intentional poisoning. The issue of the potential cardiotoxicity of older antihistamines has been raised by recent studies. Some first generation H1A potentially. Other reported side effects from an overdose of first-generation H1 antihistamines include breathing problems, coma, and seizures, according to the CSACI statement. There is also the potential for. First generation antihistamines like diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton). Drugs with diphenhydramine are also often taken as a sleep aid. What should I do if I'm taking one of these drugs? If you are taking any of these drugs or another drug that you believe is an anticholinergic drug, it's important that you don't just stop taking it, especially if it's.

What Are Non-Drowsy Antihistamines? How They Work? | New

First-generation antihistamines are associated with substantial and sometimes fatal side effects.Antihistamines with diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine or hydroxyzine are first-generation. First generation Antihistamine H₁ antagonists, also called H₁ blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the H₁ receptor, helping to relieve from allergic reactions. Second generation Antihistamine Generally do not cause the sedation and drying seen in first-generation antihistamines; Do not cross the blood-brain barrier as readily as First Generation. Background: The majority of individuals with allergic rhinitis in the US take first-generation antihistamines (FGAs). Although FGAs have been proven effective in alleviating allergic rhinitis symptoms, they have been associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle, aviation and occupational injuries and deaths, reduced productivity and impaired learning First-generation antihistamines may cause drowsiness or GI signs (eg, vomiting, diarrhea). Overdoses may cause CNS hyperexcitability and may be fatal. Anticholinergic properties lead to hypertension (and thus contraindicated in cardiac patients), dry mouth, blurred vision (contraindicated in glaucoma), and urinary retention. Hydroxyzine is teratogenic. They may also stimulate appetite.

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